"In a complex coastal urban setting, models are required to simulate a wide range of physical processes that span a broad range of spatial and temporal scales. Because of the complexity associated with each of these processes, no model to date captures all of these processes on its own. My approach is to combine a coastal ocean model and a hydrologic model, and apply the coupled model to investigate land-sea linkages in Singapore waters. An integrated approach is also employed in this study by assessing the forcing components of the system (environmental inputs), intermediate outcomes (models results) and overall project outcomes (adaptation strategies) in a systematic manner. This study will lead to an improved understanding of flow and transport in coastal urban environments, and the results will assist planners and policy makers in formulating adaptation strategies to cope with climate change and anthropogenic influences."